Laúd barroco

Archlute

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The archlu­te (Spa­nish archi­laúd, Ita­lian arci­liu­to, Ger­man Erz­lau­te, Rus­sian Архилютня) is a Euro­pean pluc­ked string ins­tru­ment deve­lo­ped around 1600 as a com­pro­mi­se bet­ween the very lar­ge theor­bo, the size and re-entrant tuning of which made for dif­fi­cul­ties in the per­for­man­ce of solo music, and the Renais­san­ce tenor lute, which lac­ked the bass ran­ge of the theor­bo. Essen­tially a tenor lute with the theorbo’s neck-exten­sion, the archlu­te lacks the power in the tenor and the bass that the theorbo’s lar­ge body and typi­cally grea­ter string length pro­vi­de.

The main dif­fe­ren­ces bet­ween the archlu­te and the «baro­que» lute of nort­hern Euro­pe are that the baro­que lute has 11 to 13 cour­ses, whi­le the archlu­te typi­cally has 14, and the tuning of the first six cour­ses of the baro­que lute outli­nes a d-minor chord, whi­le the archlu­te pre­ser­ves the tuning of the Renais­san­ce lute, with per­fect fourths surroun­ding a third in the midd­le for the first six. The archlu­te was often used as a solo ins­tru­ment for the first three-quar­ters of the 17th cen­tury, but is rarely men­tio­ned as a con­ti­nuo ins­tru­ment in this period, the theor­bo being the lute class ins­tru­ment with this role.

As con­ti­nuo bass lines were com­po­sed both fas­ter in motion and hig­her in tes­si­tu­ra towards the end of the 17th cen­tury, the archlu­te began to eclip­se the theor­bo as the main pluc­ked string con­ti­nuo ins­tru­ment. The theor­bo lac­ked the hig­her notes of the bass lines and the increa­sing prac­ti­se of dou­bling the con­ti­nuo part with a bowed bass (cello or viol) made the archlute’s lack of power in the tenor and bass a less impor­tant short­co­ming.

The theor­bo had been com­monly used as the melo­dic bass ins­tru­ment in trio sona­tas from the begin­ning of the Baro­que and the archlu­te took over that fun­ction too, with the most famous exam­ple being Core­lli’s Opus 1 and 3 trio sona­tas which have part­books for 1st and 2nd vio­lin, ‘vio­lo­ne o arci­liu­to’ and a con­ti­nuo part for organ, a sim­pli­fied ver­sion of the ‘vio­lo­ne o arci­liu­to’ book. The vio­lo­ne o arci­liu­to book has just as many figu­res to tell the pla­yer what chords to play as the organ part­book, which sug­gests the archlu­te pla­yer would be adding chords abo­ve the bass whe­re pos­si­ble.

The archlu­te was used in Han­del’s ope­ras and like reper­toi­re; Giu­lio Cesa­re (1724) has con­ti­nuo parts labe­lled both arci­liu­to and tior­ba. Per­haps one pla­yer would play both ins­tru­ments.

Music for solo archlu­te is usually nota­ted in tabla­tu­re.

Composers

Any late Ita­lian Baro­que music with a part labe­lled ‘liu­to’ will mean ‘arci­liu­to’, the clas­sic Renais­san­ce lute being in disu­se by this time. The most impor­tant com­po­sers of archlu­te music in the 17th cen­tury are Ales­san­dro Pic­ci­ni­ni and in the 18th cen­tury Gio­van­ni Zam­bo­ni, who­se set of 12 sona­tas (1718, Luc­ca) for the ins­tru­ment is extant, and Anto­nio Scot­ti and Mel­chio­rre Chie­sa, Mila­ne­se com­po­sers from late 18th cen­tury. Other known com­po­sers of archlu­te music were Anto­nio Tinaz­zo­li, Giu­sep­pe Vac­ca­ri and Lodo­vi­co Fon­ta­ne­lli.

Performers

Some living pla­yers are Edin Kara­ma­zov, Axel Wolf and Luca Pian­ca (the foun­der of Il Giar­dino Armo­ni­co), who pre­do­mi­nantly play archlu­tes, and Pao­lo Che­ri­ci, Mas­si­mo Lonar­di, , Paul O’Dette, Jakob Lind­berg and Nigel North, who use archlu­tes exten­si­vely.

Tuning

Tuning-arch.png

See also

External links

Theorbo

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The theor­bo is a pluc­ked string ins­tru­ment of the lute family, with an exten­ded neck and a second peg­box. Like a lute, a theor­bo has a cur­ved-back sound box (a hollow box) with a woo­den top, typi­cally with a sound hole, and a neck exten­ding out from the sound­box. As with the lute, the pla­yer plucks or strums the strings with one hand whi­le «fret­ting» (pres­sing down) the strings with the other hand; pres­sing the strings in dif­fe­rent pla­ces on the neck pro­du­ces dif­fe­rent pit­ches (notes), thus enabling the per­for­mer to play chords, bass­li­nes and melo­dies.

It is rela­ted to the liu­to attior­ba­to, the French théor­be des piè­ces, the archlu­te, the Ger­man baro­que lute, and the angé­li­que or ange­li­ca. A theor­bo dif­fers from a regu­lar lute in that the theor­bo has a much lon­ger neck which extends beyond the regu­lar fingerboard/neck and a second peg­box at the end of the exten­ded neck. Low-regis­ter bass strings are added on the exten­ded neck. This gives a theor­bo a much wider ran­ge of pit­ches (notes) than a regu­lar lute. The theor­bo was used during the Baro­que music era (1600–1750) to play bas­so con­ti­nuo accom­pa­ni­ment parts (as part of the bas­so con­ti­nuo group, which often inclu­ded har­psi­chord, pipe organ and bass ins­tru­ments), and also as a solo ins­tru­ment.

Origin and development

Theor­bos were deve­lo­ped during the late six­teenth cen­tury in Italy, ins­pi­red by the demand for exten­ded bass ran­ge ins­tru­ments for use in ope­ra deve­lo­ped by the Flo­ren­ti­ne Came­ra­ta and new musi­cal works uti­li­sing bas­so con­ti­nuo, such as Giu­lio Cac­ci­ni’s two collec­tions, Le nuo­ve musi­che (1602 and 1614). For his 1607 ope­ra L’Orfeo, Clau­dio Mon­te­ver­di lists duoi (two) chi­ta­ro­ni among the ins­tru­ments requi­red for per­for­ming the work. Musi­cians ori­gi­nally used lar­ge bass lutes (c. 80+ cm string length) and a hig­her re-entrant tuning; but soon crea­ted neck exten­sions with secon­dary peg­bo­xes to accom­mo­da­te extra open (i.e. unfret­ted) lon­ger bass strings, called dia­pa­sons or bour­dons, for impro­ve­ments in tonal cla­rity and an increa­sed ran­ge of avai­la­ble notes. Alt­hough the words chi­ta­rro­ne and tior­ba were both used to des­cri­be the ins­tru­ment, they have dif­fe­rent orga­no­lo­gi­cal and ety­mo­lo­gi­cal ori­gins; chi­ta­rro­ne being in Ita­lian an aug­men­ta­tion of (and lite­rally mea­ning lar­ge) chi­ta­rra – Ita­lian for gui­tar. The round-bac­ked chi­ta­rra was still in use, often refe­rred to as chi­ta­rra Ita­lia­na to dis­tin­guish it from chi­ta­rra alla spag­no­la in its new flat-bac­ked Spa­nish incar­na­tion. The ety­mo­logy of tior­ba is still obs­cu­re; it is hypot­he­si­zed the ori­gin may be in Sla­vic or Tur­kish tor­ba, mea­ning ‘bag’ or ‘tur­ban’.

Accor­ding to Atha­na­sius Kir­cher, tior­ba was a nick­na­me in Nea­po­li­tan lan­gua­ge for a grin­ding board used by per­fu­mers for grin­ding essen­ces and herbs.[2] It is pos­si­ble the appea­ran­ce of this new lar­ge ins­tru­ment (par­ti­cu­larly in a crow­ded ensem­ble) resul­ted in jokes and a humour indu­ced refe­ren­ce with popu­lar local know­led­ge beco­ming lost over time and pla­ce. Robert Spen­cer has noted the con­fu­sion the two names were already lea­ding to in 1600: Chi­ta­ro­ne, ò Tior­ba che si dica (chi­ta­rro­ne, or theor­bo as it is called). By the mid-17th cen­tury it would appear that tior­ba had taken pre­fe­ren­ce – reflec­ted in modern prac­ti­ce, hel­ping to dis­tin­guish the theor­bo now from very dif­fe­rent ins­tru­ments like the chi­ta­rro­ne moderno or gui­ta­rrón. Simi­lar adap­ta­tions to sma­ller lutes (c. 55+ cm string length) also pro­du­ced the arci­liu­to (archlu­te), liu­to attior­ba­to, and tior­bino, which were dif­fe­rently tuned ins­tru­ments to accom­mo­da­te a new reper­toi­re of small ensem­ble or solo works. In the per­for­man­ce of bas­so con­ti­nuo, theor­boes were often pai­red with a small pipe organ.

The most pro­mi­nent early com­po­sers and pla­yers in Italy were Gio­van­ni Giro­la­mo Kaps­per­ger and Ales­san­dro Pic­ci­ni­ni. Giu­liano Para­ti­co was anot­her early Ita­lian chi­ta­rro­ne pla­yer. Little solo music sur­vi­ves from England, but William Lawes and others used theor­bos in cham­ber ensem­bles and ope­ra orches­tras. In Fran­ce, theor­bos were appre­cia­ted and used in orches­tral or cham­ber music until the second half of the 18th cen­tury (Nico­las Hot­man, Robert de Visée). Court orches­tras at Vien­na, Bay­reuth and Ber­lin still emplo­yed theor­bo pla­yers after 1750 (Ernst Gottlieb Baron, Fran­ces­co Con­ti). Solo music for the theor­bo is nota­ted in tabla­tu­re, a form of music nota­tion in which the frets and strings which a pla­yer must press down are prin­ted on a series of para­llel lines which repre­sent the strings on the fret­board.

Tuning and strings

The tuning of lar­ge theor­boes is cha­rac­te­ri­zed by the octa­ve dis­pla­ce­ment, or «re-entrant tuning», of the two upper­most strings. Pic­ci­ni­ni and Michael Prae­to­rius men­tion the occa­sio­nal use of metal strings (brass and steel, as oppo­sed to gut strings). The Lau­te mit Abzü­gen: oder Tes­tu­do Theor­ba­ta that appears in Syn­tag­ma Musi­cum by Prae­to­rius, has dou­bled strings (cour­ses) pas­sing over the brid­ge and atta­ched to the base of the ins­tru­ment – dif­fe­rent to his Padua­nis­che Theor­ba (oppo­si­te in the same illus­tra­tion which seems to have sin­gle strings). The Lang Roma­nis­che Theor­ba: Chi­ta­rron also appears to have sin­gle strings atta­ched to the brid­ge. The string «cour­ses», unli­ke tho­se of a Renais­san­ce lute or archlu­te, were often sin­gle, alt­hough dou­ble strin­ging was also used. Typi­cally, theor­boes have 14 cour­ses, though some used 15 or even 19 cour­ses (Kaps­ber­ger).

15-course Theorbo tuning chart

This is theor­bo tuning in A. Modern theor­bo pla­yers usually play 14-cour­se (string) ins­tru­ments (lowest cour­se is G). Some pla­yers have used a theor­bo tuned a who­le step lower in G. Most of the solo reper­toi­re is in the A tuning. The «re-entrant tuning» crea­ted new pos­si­bi­li­ties for voi­ce lea­ding and ins­pi­red a new right hand tech­ni­que with just thumb, index and midd­le fin­gers to arpeg­gia­te chords, which Pic­ci­ni­ni like­ned to the sound of a harp. The bass tes­si­tu­ra (ran­ge) and re-entrant strin­ging mean that in order to keep the figu­red bass «reali­sa­tion» (the impro­vi­sed pla­ying of chords) abo­ve the bass ins­tru­ments when accom­pan­ying bas­so con­ti­nuo, the bass­li­ne must some­ti­mes be pla­yed an octa­ve lower (Kaps­ber­ger). In the French trea­ti­ses, chords in which a lower note sounds after the bass were also used when the bass goes high. The English theor­bo had just the first string at the lower octa­ve (Tho­mas Mace).

Regional Differences

Italy

The theor­bo was deve­lo­ped in Italy, and so has a rich legacy in Ita­lian music as both a solo and con­ti­nuo ins­tru­ment. Cac­ci­ni com­ments in Le nou­ve musi­che (1602) that the theor­bo is per­fectly sui­ted for accom­pan­ying the voi­ce sin­ce it can give a very full sup­port wit­hout being obs­cu­red by the voca­list, indi­ca­ting the begin­ning of an Ita­lian tra­di­tion of mono­dic songs accom­pa­nied by theor­bo. Ita­lians called the theorbo’s dia­pa­sons its “spe­cial exce­llen­ce”.[3] Ita­lians vie­wed the theor­bo as an easier alter­na­ti­ve to the lute sin­ce the gene­ral attrac­ti­ve­ness of its sound qua­lity can cover over indif­fe­rent pla­ying and lazy voi­ce lea­ding.[3]

England

The Ita­lian theor­bo first came to England at the begin­ning of the seven­teenth cen­tury, but an alter­na­te design based on the English two-hea­ded lute, desig­ned by Jaques Gaul­tier, soon beca­me more popu­lar.[3] English theor­bos were gene­rally tuned in G and dou­ble strung throug­hout, with only the first cour­se in reen­trant tuning. Theor­bos tuned in G were much bet­ter sui­ted to flat keys, and so many English songs or con­sort pie­ces that invol­ved theor­bo were writ­ten in flat keys that would be very dif­fi­cult to pay on a theor­bo in A.[3] By the eigh­teenth cen­tury, the theor­bo had fallen out of fas­hion in England due to its lar­ge size and low pitch It was repla­ced by the archlu­te.[3]

France

The first men­tion of a theor­bo in Fran­ce was in 1637, and by the 1660s it had repla­ced the 10-cour­se lute as the most popu­lar accom­pan­ying ins­tru­ment.[3] The theor­bo was a very impor­tant con­ti­nuo ins­tru­ment in the French court and mul­ti­ple French theor­bo con­ti­nuo tutors were publis­hed by Delair (1690), Cam­pion (1716 and 1730), Bar­to­lot­ti (1669), Fleury (1660), and Gre­ne­rin (1670).[3] French theor­bos had up to eight stop­ped strings and were often somew­hat sma­ller and quie­ter than Ita­lian theor­bos. They were a stan­dard sca­le length of 76 cm com­pa­red to Ita­lian ins­tru­ments that ran­ged from 85–95 cm.[3]

Germany

Ger­man theor­bos would also today be called swan-nec­ked Baro­que lutes; seven­teenth-cen­tury Ger­man theor­bists pla­yed sin­gle-strung ins­tru­ments in the Ita­lian tuning trans­po­sed down a who­le step, but eigh­teenth-cen­tury pla­yers swit­ched to dou­ble-strung ins­tru­ments in the “d-minor” tuning used in French and Ger­man Baro­que lute music so as to not have to ret­hink their chord sha­pes when pla­ying theor­bo. The­se ins­tru­ments came to be refe­rred to as theor­bo-lutes.[4] Baron remarks that “the lute, becau­se of its deli­cacy, ser­ves well in trios or other cham­ber music with few par­ti­ci­pants. The theor­bo, becau­se of its power, ser­ves best in groups of thirty to forty musi­cians, as in chur­ches and ope­ras.”[4] Theor­bo-lutes would likely have been used along­si­de Ita­lian theor­bos and archlu­tes in con­ti­nuo set­tings due to the pre­sen­ce of Ita­lian musi­cians in Ger­man courts and also for the pur­po­se of using ins­tru­ments that were appro­pria­te for wha­te­ver key the music was in.[3]

Technique

The theor­bo is pla­yed much like the lute, with the left hand pres­sing down on the fin­ger­board to vary the reso­na­ting length of the strings whi­le the right fin­ger­tips pluck the strings. The most sig­ni­fi­cant dif­fe­ren­ces bet­ween theor­bo and lute tech­ni­que are that theor­bo is pla­yed with the right thumb outsi­de the hand, as oppo­sed to Renais­san­ce lute which is pla­yed with the thumb under the hand. Addi­tio­nally, the right hand thumb is enti­rely res­pon­si­ble for pla­ying the bass dia­pa­sons and rarely comes up onto the top cour­ses. Most theor­bists play with the flesh of their fin­gers on the right hand, alt­hough the­re is some his­to­ri­cal pre­ce­dent from Pic­ci­ni­ni, Mace, and Weiss to use nails. Fin­ger­nails can be more effec­ti­ve on a theor­bo than on a lute due to its sin­gle-strung cour­ses, and the use of nails is most often sug­ges­ted in the con­text of ensem­ble pla­ying whe­re tone qua­lity beco­mes sub­ser­vient to volu­me.[cita­tion nee­ded]

Solo Repertoire

The theorbo’s solo Baro­que reper­toi­re comes exclu­si­vely from Italy and Fran­ce, with the excep­tion of some English music writ­ten for the English theor­bo. The most effec­ti­ve and idio­ma­tic music for the theor­bo takes advan­ta­ge of its two most uni­que qua­li­ties: the dia­pa­sons and the reen­trant tuning. Cam­pa­ne­lla pas­sa­ges that allow sca­le pas­sa­ges to ring across mul­ti­ple strings in a harp-like fas­hion are par­ti­cu­larly com­mon and are a highly effec­ti­ve tool for the ski­lled theorbist/composer.

Italy: Kaps­ber­ger, Pic­ci­ni­ni, Cas­tal­di

  • Toc­ca­tas – free, rhap­so­dic, har­mo­ni­cally adven­tu­rous. Piccinini’s are more har­mo­ni­cally tight whi­le Kaps­ber­ger often breaks voi­ce-lea­ding rules in order to achie­ve a desired effect
  • Dan­ces – Corren­tes, Gagliar­das, con­ti­nuing in the tra­di­tion of Ita­lian lute dan­ces dating back to Dal­za
  • Varia­tions – highly sop­his­ti­ca­ted and cha­llen­ging varia­tions on often very sim­ple the­mes

Fran­ce: de Visee, Bar­to­lot­ti, Hurel, le Moy­ne

  • Dan­ce sui­tes – the vast majo­rity of French theor­bo music con­sists of dan­ce sui­tes in the order of unmea­su­red pre­lu­de, alle­man­de, couran­te, sara­band, gigue (with varia­tions)
  • Trans­crip­tions – French theor­bists often trans­cri­bed pie­ces from ope­ra com­po­sers such as Lully or key­board com­po­sers such as Coupe­rin to per­form as solo pie­ces

A few modern com­po­sers have begun to wri­te new music for the theor­bo; sig­ni­fi­cant works have been com­po­sed by Roman Turovsky, David Loeb, Bruno Hels­trof­fer, Tho­mas Boc­klen­berg, and Step­hen Goss, who has writ­ten the only con­cer­to for theor­bo.[cita­tion nee­ded]

Continuo

The theorbo’s pri­mary use was as a con­ti­nuo ins­tru­ment. Howe­ver, due to its layout as a pluc­ked ins­tru­ment and its reen­trant tuning, follo­wing strict voi­ce lea­ding para­me­ters could some­ti­mes be dif­fi­cult or even impos­si­ble. As such, a sty­le of con­ti­nuo uni­que to the theor­bo was deve­lo­ped that incor­po­ra­ted the­se fac­tors:

  • Brea­king voi­ce lea­ding to capi­ta­li­ze on voi­cings that bet­ter express the instrument’s natu­ral sono­rity. The inte­grity of the true bass line is main­tai­ned through the use of crea­ti­ve arpeg­gia­tion that masks impro­per inver­sions.
  • Fre­quent trans­po­si­tion of the bass line down an octa­ve in order to play on the dia­pa­sons.
  • Use of thin­ner tex­tu­res; due to the theorbo’s strong pro­jec­tion and rich reso­nan­ce, a three or even two voi­ce accom­pa­ni­ment will often be just as effec­ti­ve as a stan­dard four-voi­ce accom­pa­ni­ment on a har­psi­chord. Addi­tio­nally, pla­ying more than a two-voi­ce rea­li­za­tion can beco­me impos­si­ble with quick-moving bass lines.
  • Fre­quent res­tri­king of chords to make up for the instrument’s quick decay.

Thus, the pre­ser­va­tion of the bass line and the sound of the ins­tru­ment are of the hig­hest prio­rity when used as a con­ti­nuo ins­tru­ment. Brea­king voi­ce lea­ding rules beco­mes neces­sary in order to pre­ser­ve the bass line and bring out the uni­que tones of the theor­bo.

The theor­bo is labe­lled by Prae­to­rius as both a fun­da­men­tal and an orna­men­tal con­ti­nuo. ins­tru­ment, mea­ning it is capa­ble of sup­por­ting an ensem­ble as a pri­mary bass ins­tru­ment whi­le also fles­hing out the har­mony and adding color to the ensem­ble by means of chord rea­li­za­tions.[5]

Composers

Contemporary Players

References

  1. ^ Ian Har­wood; et al. «Theor­bo». In Dea­ne L. Root. Gro­ve Music Onli­ne. Oxford Music Onli­ne. Oxford Uni­ver­sity Press. (subs­crip­tion requi­red)
  2. ^ Atha­na­sius Kir­cher, Musur­gia Uni­ver­sa­lis, Rome 1650, p. 476
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Nigel., North, (1987). Con­ti­nuo pla­ying on the lute, archlu­te, and theor­bo. Bloo­ming­ton: India­na Uni­ver­sity Press. ISBN 0253314151. OCLC 14377608.
  4. ^ a b 1696–1760., Baron, Ernst Gottlieb, (1976). Study of the lute. Ins­tru­men­ta Anti­qua Publi­ca­tions. OCLC 2076633.
  5. ^ 1571–1621., Prae­to­rius, Michael, (1957). A trans­la­tion of Syn­tag­ma Musi­cum III by Michael Prae­to­rius. OCLC 68427186.

Sources

  • Bacilly, Bénig­ne de. Remar­ques Curieu­ses sur l’Arte de Bien Chan­ter. Paris, 1688. Trans­la­ted by Aus­tin B. Cas­well as A Com­men­tary upon The Art of Pro­per Sin­ging. New York: Ins­ti­tu­te of Medæ­val Music, 1968.
  • Baron, Ernst Gottlieb. His­to­risch-Theo­risch und Prac­tis­che Unter­su­chung des Ins­tru­ments der Lau­ten. Nurn­berg, 1727. Trans­la­ted by Dou­glas Alton Smith as Study of the Lute. San Fran­sis­co: Ins­tru­men­ta Anti­qua, 1976.
  • Burris, Timothy. “Lute and Theor­bo in Vocal Music in 18th Cen­tury Dres­den – A Per­for­man­ce Prac­ti­ce Study.” PhD dis­ser­ta­tion, Duke Uni­ver­sity, 1997.
  • Cac­ci­ni, Giu­lio. Le nuo­ve musi­che. Flo­ren­ce, 1601. Trans­la­ted by H. Wiley Hitch­cock as The New Music. Midd­le­ton, Wis­con­sin: A-R Edi­tions, 2009.
  • Can­ta­lu­pi, Die­go. «La tior­ba ed il suo uso in Ita­lia come stru­men­to per il bas­so con­ti­nuo», pre-press ver­sion of the dis­ser­ta­tion dis­cus­sed in 1996 at the Faculty of Musi­co­logy, Uni­ver­sity of Pavia.
  • Delair, Denis. Trai­té d’accompagnement pour le théor­be, et le cla­ve­cin. Paris, 1690. Trans­la­ted by Char­lot­te Mat­tax as Accom­pa­ni­ment on Theor­bo and Har­psi­chord. Bloo­ming­ton: India­na Uni­ver­sity Press, 1991.
  • Jones, E.H. “The Theor­bo and Con­ti­nuo Prac­ti­ce in the Early English Baro­que.” The Gal­pin Society Jour­nal 25 (July 1972): 67–72.
  • Keller, J. Gott­fried. A com­pleat met­hod for attai­ning to play a tho­rough bass upon eit­her organ, har­psi­cord, or theor­bo-lute … with variety of pro­per les­sons and fuges, explai­ning the seve­ral rules throug­hout the who­le work. Lon­don: J. Cullen and J. Young, 1707
  • Kitsos, Theo­do­ros. “Con­ti­nuo Prac­ti­ce for the Theor­bo as indi­ca­ted in Seven­teenth-cen­tury Ita­lian Prin­ted and Manus­cript Sour­ces.” PhD dis­ser­ta­tion, Uni­ver­sity of York, 2005.
  • Mason, Kevin Bru­ce. The Chi­ta­rro­ne and its Reper­toi­re in Early Seven­teenth-Cen­tury Italy. Aberystwyth, Wales: Boet­hius Press, 1989.
  • Mat­tax, Char­lot­te. Translator’s Com­men­tary to Accom­pa­ni­ment on Theor­bo and Har­psi­chord, 1–36. Bloo­ming­ton: India­na Uni­ver­sity Press, 1991.
  • North, Nigel. Con­ti­nuo Pla­ying on the Lute, Archlu­te, and Theor­bo. Bloo­ming­ton: India­na Uni­ver­sity Press, 1986.
  • Prae­to­rius, Michael. Syn­tag­ma Musi­cum III. Wol­fen­büt­tel, 1619. Trans­la­ted by Hans Lampl. PhD dis­ser­ta­tion, Uni­ver­sity of Sout­hern Cali­for­nia, 1957.
  • Rebuf­fa, Davi­de. Il liu­to, L’Epos, Peler­mo 2012
  • Schul­ze-Kurz, Ekkehard. Die Lau­te und ihre Stim­mun­gen in der ers­ten Häl­fte des 17. Jahr­hun­derts, 1990, ISBN 3–927445-04–5
  • Spen­cer, Robert. “Chi­ta­rro­ne, Theor­bo, and Archlu­te.” Early Music vol. 4 no. 4 (Octo­ber 1976): 408–422)

External links

[catlist tags=«laúd barro­co»]